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FAO: H5N1 situation update West Africa

FAO: H5N1 situation update West Africa

 

3 September, 2015

Disease situation by country
Nigeria
Number of outbreaks to date: 483 (470 farms, 10 LBM, 1 zoological garden); 1.7 billon poultry at risk with 138,000 reported mortalities and 1.5 million depopulated bird.
States affected: Kano, Lagos, Ogun, Rivers, Delta, Plateau, Edo, Gombe, Imo, Oyo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Bauchi, Zamfara, Katsina, Sokoto, Anambra, Nassarawa, Enugu, Abia; Ika North local government area (LGA) in Lagos state has reported an outbreak for the first time, increasing the number of affected LGAs to 81 Outbreaks reported since last update (19 August 2015): 8 (3 in Lagos State, 2 in Delta, 2 in Rivers, 1 in Gombe).

Côte d’Ivoire
Number of outbreaks to date: 7
Regions affected: Lagunes, Abidjam, Bassam, Bouaké
Official outbreaks since last update (19 August 2015): 1
· 28 000 birds have been destroyed
·
Compensation for farmers has been approved by the government but implementation is delayed
·
Culling officers face security issues, even when accompanied by law enforcement officers
·
Planned mission to Agnibiliékro (2nd largest poultry production region) for H5N1 HPAI awareness raising of poultry producers, veterinary officers, and local authorities
·
The Ministry of Animal Resources (MIRAH) has convened a technical committee on H5N1 to meet weekly, consisting of the minister, veterinary services (DSV), and FAO
Ongoing activities include:
·
Culling
·
Information sharing and sensitization of farmers and live bird vendors is planned by the poultry producers association
· Live bird market closure in Abidjan

Ghana:
No new outbreaks since 10 August, 2015
· Limited active surveillance in high-risk areas has yielded negative results based on clinical signs and laboratory testing.
·
As part of the surveillance activities 389 samples, mainly tracheal swabs, from birds entering LBM have been tested in the past 2 weeks (RT-PCR).
· Compensation for farmers agreed upon, however, funds have not yet made available

FAO Actions
· Currently FAO national consultants for Nigeria, Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire are linking with the national veterinary service to receive timely update on the disease epidemiological situation as well as to coordinate FAO assistance in regard to the TCP activities.

 

Melbourne's Langham Hotel salmonella outbreak blamed on raw egg mayonnaise

Melbourne's Langham Hotel salmonella outbreak blamed on raw egg mayonnaise

25 August, 2015

Raw egg mayonnaise has been identified as the cause of a salmonella outbreak at Melbourne's Langham Hotel which caused 90 people to become ill. Sixteen people were hospitalised as a result of the poisoning outbreak at the luxury hotel in July, including a pregnant woman who was forced to deliver her baby five weeks early. 
The department began an investigation of food served at the hotel on the weekend of July 11 and 12 after a number of people reported illness.
A Department of Health investigation has linked the salmonella outbreak to the mayonnaise used in the chicken sandwiches served as part of the Langham Hotel's high tea. 

The 2012-2013 integrated NARMS report

The 2012-2013 integrated NARMS report

15 August, 2015

The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) Integrated Report is the result of a collaborative effort of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). NARMS gathers surveillance data from human clinical samples, slaughter samples and retail meat samples. This “One Health” approach to integrated surveillance provides information needed to assess the nature and magnitude of resistance in bacteria moving through the food supply and causing illnesses in humans.
The points listed below summarize important observations from the 2012-2013 NARMS Integrated Report. This year’s report shows that the situation in the United States is stable, but shows somewhat more favorable trends over time than unfavorable ones. Overall resistance remains low for most human infections and there have been measurable improvements in resistance levels in other important areas. A summary of the most important trends is presented below.
- Approximately 80% of human Salmonella isolates are not resistant to any of the tested antibiotics. This has remained relatively stable over the past ten years. Resistance for three important drugs (ceftriaxone, azithromycin and ciprofloxacin) in human non-typhoidal Salmonella isolates remained below 3%.
- Over the past ten years, multidrug resistance (MDR) has remained unchanged in human Salmonella isolates (~10%) and in cattle and chicken isolates collected the USDA Pathogen Reduction/Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point program (PR/HACCP; ~20%). There was a decline in the proportion of retail chicken Salmonella that were multi-drug resistant compared to the 2008-2012 average.
- Overall, ciprofloxacin resistance has been consistently low among Salmonella isolated from all sources. Similarly, ciprofloxacin resistance in E. coli was absent or very low (0-1.7%) in isolates from retail meats, PR/HACCP chicken and cecal samples.
- Ceftriaxone resistance has declined since 2009 in human (3.4% to 2.5%) and retail chicken (38% to 20%) Salmonella isolates with a parallel drop in resistance among E. coli isolates from retail chicken (12.4% to 4.4%). In 2013, ceftriaxone resistance in human Salmonella Heidelberg isolates was 15%,, down from a peak of 24% in 2010. Ceftriaxone resistance in retail chicken Salmonella Heidelberg remained at 0% since 2011, down from a peak of 32% in 2009.
- Resistance to an important drug pattern (ACSSuT) continued to decline in human isolates of Salmonella Typhimurium.
- Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli cause about 90% and 10% of human campylobacter infections, respectively. In retail chicken samples, C. jejuni resistance to ciprofloxacin was at its lowest level to date (11%), while ciprofloxacin resistance in C. jejuni isolated from chicken slaughter samples has not declined (22% in 2013). The prevalence of Campylobacter in retail chicken samples has gradually declined over the past 9 years.
- Erythromycin resistance in C. jejuni isolates from both human and chicken sources has remained low (< 3%), and gentamicin resistance in C. coli isolates has steeply declined for both human and food sources after spiking in recent years.
- With the exception of five isolates in the past ten years, no resistance has been detected in Enterococcus to three important drugs: daptomycin, linezolid and vancomycin.
- While a majority of the observations in the 2012-2013 NARMS Integrated Report show desirable trends, there are a few findings of potential concern.
- Non susceptibility to ciprofloxacin has increased since in human non-typhoidal Salmonella since 1996.
- There has been no change in ciprofloxacin resistance among human C. jejuni isolates, which remained at 22%; however, ciprofloxacin resistance in human C. coli isolates has increased from 25% in 2005 to 35% in 2013. In contrast to the observed decline in ciprofloxacin resistance in C. jejuni from retail chicken (see above), it did not decline in C. jejuni isolated from chicken carcasses at processing (PR/HACCP).
- Macrolide resistance in human Campylobacter coli doubled from 9% in 2012 to 18% in 2013 and rose comparably in C. coli isolates from PR/HACCP chicken, from a low level of 3.4% in 2011 to 11% in 2013.
- MDR in human isolates of a common Salmonella serotype (l 4,[5],12:i:-) more than doubled from 18% in 2011 to 46% in 2013. MDR and ceftriaxone resistance in Salmonella serotype Dublin isolated from cattle and human sources has increased. While the incidence of human Salmonella Dublin infections is relatively low, it can cause invasive disease with more severe outcomes, and ranks among the top 4 serotypes isolated from retail ground beef and PR/HACCP samples. MDR Salmonella from turkey products also has increased over the past decade.
- The examples of extremely drug resistant Salmonella and E. coli, while rare, warrant careful attention.

Prevalence of Campylobacter in retail meat samples

 

 

Highly pathogenic avian influenza in the USA

Highly pathogenic avian influenza in the USA

19 April, 2015

Based on the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) reporting criteria for avian influenza in commercial poultry, between 1997 and 2014, the United States experienced one incident of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry. From December 2014 till now there have been 50 confirmed outbreaks of H5N2/H5N8 HPAI.

37 cases were H5N2 in turkey commercial farms
1 case of H5N2 in a commercial chicken farm
9 cases of H5N2 in backyard poultry
1 case of H5N8 in a turkey commercial farm
1 case of H5N8 in a commercial chicken farm
1 cases of H5N8 in backyard poultry
A total of 2.67 million birds were affected. The outbreaks were reported from 14 different states. All the identified H5N2 viruses are East Asia / America lineage reassortments. The H5N8 viruses are East Asia lineage. To date, 51 wild birds have tested positive for H5N1, H5N2 or H5N8 infection.

 USA - AI




Germany: 19,000 cases of salmonellosis and 63,600 cases of campylobacteriosis reported in 2013

Germany: 19,000 cases of salmonellosis and 63,600 cases of campylobacteriosis reported in 2013

12 April, 2015

Every year, the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) prepares a report on the epidemiological situation of zoonoses in Germany. The goal is to contribute towards the prevention of diseases transmitted via food. The evaluation of the data from 2013 shows that the control of Salmonella in poultry is a continued success and that case numbers in humans are dropping. The detection rate of Campylobacter in food and, accordingly, the number of reported infections has not dropped, however. A comparison of the detection rates among animals and in food shows with poultry in particular that there is no success in preventing the contamination of carcasses with zoonotic pathogens originating from livestock farming. Despite all efforts to control zoonoses, pathogens can still be contained in foods. Zoonoses control has to be continued in livestock farming and intensified in the poultry slaughtering process.
For several years now, the control of Salmonella in poultry can be seen as a success. Although salmonellosis is one of the most common bacterial diseases of the intestines, with roughly 19,000 cases reported in Germany every year, the number of infections as well as the number of contaminated food samples are continuing to drop. Extensive Salmonella control in poultry farming has resulted in fewer positive flocks, but due to carryover during the slaughter process, poultry meat continues to be more frequently contaminated with Salmonella than the meat of other domestic animals.
The most common disease caused by a zoonotic pathogen is still campylobacteriosis with around 63,600 reported cases in Germany in 2013. Accordingly, the pathogen is frequently found in foods, with poultry meat being the most common here too. The reason for the particularly high level of contamination in poultry meat with pathogens such as Salmonella and Campylobacter is to be found in the slaughter process where insufficient success has been achieved up to now in preventing the transfer of the pathogen from the animal (feathers and intestinal tract) to the meat.

Nigeria: avian influenza now in 11 states

Nigeria: avian influenza now in 11 states

28 January, 2015

The Federal Nigerian Government confirmed the presence of H5N1 Avian Influenza virus in four other states apart from the seven states earlier reported. The additional states include – Oyo, Jigawa, Gombe and Imo.
Of all the states affected, Kano has the highest exposure rate of birds.

New Avian Influenza Virus Strain Detected in Taiwan

New Avian Influenza Virus Strain Detected in Taiwan

16 January 2015

TAIWAN - As bird flu sweeps across Taiwan, a new strain of the avian influenza virus - H5N3 - has been detected for the first time in the country.

A strain of avian influenza virus identified as H5N3 has been detected in Taiwan during a widening investigation of a bird flu outbreak on poultry farms around Taiwan, according to animal inspection authorities.

Focus Taiwan reports that it is the first time that the H5N3 strain was found in Taiwan, according to the Council of Agriculture's Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine.

Since the avian flu outbreak was first reported last week, three new strains of bird flu viruses, including variants of H5N2 and H5N8, have been discovered in Taiwan, the bureau said.

As of the evening of 15 January, 137 poultry farms had been inspected and samples had been collected for laboratory testing. The latest results showed that 101 of the farms were infected, and the H5N3 virus was found at two of them.

USDA and FSIS has proposed new federal standards to reduce Salmonella and Campylobacter

USDA and FSIS has proposed new federal standards to reduce Salmonella and Campylobacter

23 January, 2015

New standards aimed at reducing the number of cases of foodborne illness. The proposed standards by the Agriculture Department apply to the most popular poultry products - chicken breasts, legs and wings, and ground chicken and turkey. They are voluntary but designed to pressure companies to lower rates of salmonella and campylobacter. Among the measures companies could take to reduce the rates of those pathogens: better screening of flocks and better sanitation.
The proposal would ask poultry producers to reduce the rates of salmonella in raw chicken parts from around 24 percent now to less than 16 percent, and campylobacter rates in raw chicken parts from 22 percent to 8 percent. Rates also would be reduced in ground chicken and turkey.
The USDA will post facility ratings online to increase transparency and put more pressure on poultry processors. The legal limit for Salmonella contamination on chicken parts will be set at 15%. For ground chicken, the maximum acceptable percent positive will be 25% for Salmonella and 1.9% for Campylobacter. The old standards for chicken parts were 44.6% in ground chicken. USDA estimates that almost 2/3 of facilities producing chicken parts and 62% of facilities producing ground chicken will not achieve these standards at first. An initial inspection will be followed up with more sampling to see if the facilities are making and using changes to food safety systems. FSIS is also going to being routine sampling of raw chicken parts and sampling imported poultry products. These results will also be posted online.
The Agriculture Department says the standards could eventually reduce salmonella and campylobacter illnesses linked to raw poultry by about a quarter, or 50,000 illnesses a year.